Cause & Effect: What was the main event described in the article? What were the causes of this event? Describe

Cause & Effect: What was the main event described in the article? What were the causes of this event? Describe each cause by citing specific details from the article and explaining how it contributed to the main event.

In the United States after World War II, many writers were tired of the art they were seeing. They felt that pieces of popular culture — such as movies, plays and books — were becoming boring and too similar. Artists wanted something different and to hear new voices. Beginning in the 1940s and 1950s, three “outsider” groups in particular brought new voices to fiction: Southerners, Jews and African-Americans.After the war, much of American pop culture was usually colored with optimism and hope. But not everyone felt this way.An outsider’s look at life in AmericaThese new outsider groups asked questions. Their work had a sense of uncertainty. It was often tragic and less hopeful.The Southern writers included William Faulkner, Eudora Welty and Flannery O’Connor. They talked of Southern life after the Civil War. They spoke of characters who tried to stay noble and hopeful in spite of failures.Jewish writers, such as Chicago novelist Saul Bellow, spoke of the experience of Jewish immigrants in America. American Jews, in their view, seemed confident and wealthy on the outside. Underneath, though, these people were confused and uncertain.Many other immigrant writers have explored how their cultures differed from their new American lives. Among the most popular were Cuban-American writer Oscar Hijuelos and Antigua-born Jamaica Kincaid. Indian-born novelist Bharati Mukherjee and Asian-American writer Ha Jin were also popular.Writing the African-American experienceMany people have hoped to live the American dream. This thought is that anyone can become successful by working hard. But for many African-Americans, the promise of the American dream had never been kept. One of the most important novels from this time was by African-American Ralph Ellison, who wrote “Invisible Man” in 1952. Later, two African-American women, Toni Morrison and Alice Walker, published some of the most important American fiction after World War II.Soon, feminism became a more important political movement. Feminists wanted women to have the same rights as men. Nothing like this had been seen since women fought for the right to vote in the early 1900s. Many women were now excited to write about their experiences. Since the 1960s, many women novelists have become popular and admired, including Joyce Carol Oates and Alison Lurie.Poetic nonfictionMany novelists wrote about experiences that were outside of the mainstream, general view of American life. Soon, people questioned, who is the everyday American? There were so many different people and views in America.Many writers soon soon tried something different. They started writing stories about true events, but in the poetic style of novels. One example of this was James Agee’s “Let Us Now Praise Famous Men,” which was published in 1941, about poor black farmers in the South.Later, some writers wrote about public events but in a personal, playful way. Tom Wolfe’s book “The Right Stuff,” published in 1979, spoke of the early days of the American space program in this way. During the 1990s, more writers tried autobiographies — true stories about their own lives. At the end of the 20th century, some American novels got very long. They tried to capture many different views and subjects. At over 1,000 words, David Foster Wallace’s 1996 novel, “Infinite Jest,” was one such book.New voices tell new storiesMeanwhile, the short story slowly became more popular in American writing. Two of the most remarkable collections of short stories were released. One was J. D. Salinger’s “Nine Stories,” published in 1953. Another was Raymond Carver’s “What We Talk About When We Talk About Love,” written nearly 30 years later. Salinger talked charmingly about the search for meaning in life. Carver’s work was dark, with characters who hid their true feelings.Literature lets us hear from people who we may have overlooked. This can be seen in feminist writers, writers of color and LGBT writers working in the late 1900s.Literature is above all about telling people’s stories. American literature has only been enriched by new stories and points of view.

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